Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is." Mark 13:33



DTT Store


Order Now!


Background Information  

Who Are We? 
Want To Help?

DTT Analyses & Reports

Key International Meetings

Government Links
News Sources  

Freedom21 Agenda


Enjoy a good mystery novel? Check this out


Dr. James Dobson on Global Warming
Global Warming A Fraud--Sen. James Inhofe
Scientists Disclaim Role of CO2 in Global Warming
Unstoppable Global Warming
Media Spin on Global Warming--Sen. James Inhofe
Time magazine - 1974 The Coming Ice Age The same rhetoric now used for global warming, except then it was for global cooling
2008 Financial Crisis
Are There more Earthquakes Today?
Are Our Forests Dwindling?
America's Wakeup Call
In Our Backyard,
The Dangers of
Radical Islam

Islam and Christianity

Past NewsBytes Analyses
-In-depth Analyses
-Past Digests by Date and
 by Theme and Date
Walking with Jesus
Prophecy Lessons
Environmental Perspectives, Inc.
Sovereignty International


6 Heather Rd.
Bangor, Maine 04401


Toll Free
877 271-7639
office number
(207) 945-9878

email Discerning The Times


Is 2002 Second Warmest in History?
Michael S. Coffman, Ph.D.
December 16, 2002
Figure 1

Figure 1: Trend of global annual surface temperature relative to 1951-1980 mean. Click for full-size GIF or PDF of this graph. From: "Global Temperature Trends: 2002 Summation," Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2002.

Even as Europe and Siberia was experiencing its coldest November in decades, NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies announced that 2002 was the second warmest in climate recording history (Figure 1). Is that true, or is something else involved? NASA asserts:

The 2002 meteorological year is the second warmest year in the period of accurate instrumental data (since the late 1800s). The global surface temperature for 12 months from December 2001 through November 2002 is 0.51C above the climatological mean (1951-1980 average) in the GISS analysis, which uses meteorological station measurements over land and satellite measurements of sea surface temperature over the ocean.

But there is something NASA isn't telling you. This data comes from ground based temperatures --- usually measured by thermometers at airports. That presents a problem. Besides being moved a few times in their history and data being taken by an infinite number of people, all but a few of these stations in the first half of the twentieth century were surrounded by open countryside. The cities served by these airports  expanded beyond the airports in the latter half of the twentieth century -- especially from the mid-1970s on. The airports, and therefore the thermometers, are now surrounded by asphalt, tar-paper roofs and tall buildings that trap heat.

The surrounding or ambient temperature has therefore increased substantially because dark non-living surfaces trap and radiate more energy than living green surfaces. This is called the heat-island effect. When the ground data is compared against satellite data from nine geo-stationary microwave measuring sensors that sum the total tropospheric (about 5 miles deep) temperatures for the entire world the results are quite different, as depicted in Figure 2.

Figure 2. When the total tropospheric temperature is measured by very accurate satellite microwave sensors (blue), the warming is much less than measure by ground stations (red) --- suggesting only a modest warming that is easily explained by the recovery from the little ice age in the 1700s.

Global warming advocates claim a 5 mile deep mass of air is too much to determine if we have global warming. Global warming skeptics say it doesn't matter. If there is real warming, then the entire troposphere should warm. So far that warming is minimal and can be explained by the recovery from the little ice age in the 1700s when it was a full degree cooler than now. Besides, skeptics claim, the earth was a full degree warmer than today around 1200, during what is known as the climatic optimum, when the Vikings colonized and raised crops in Greenland.

The global temperature is estimated to be a degree cooler than today during the little ice age in the 1700s and a degree warmer in 1200 AD. The warming today is thought by skeptics  to merely represent the recovery from the little ice age.

The heat island effect is well known by NASA, and climatologists have attempted to correct the data for the United States. When that is done, the data for the United States more closely matches the satellite data. However, except some correction for Europe, little correction has been made for the rest of the world's data. Therefore, the data shown by NASA is highly skewed towards artificial warming. Besides, just how much correction can be used for the ground data? How do they know when enough correction has been applied since there is no benchmark to compare too? Fact is, the scientists can't know how much correction to apply. Therefore, any correction they apply is merely a best guess estimate.

The accuracy of satellite temperature data is a much better measure of global warming than ground-based data. It is never cited by NASA or the media, however, because it doesn't support the global warming agenda. President Bush was correct when he withdrew the U.S. from the Kyoto protocol in 2001. Global warming advocates proclaimed in the early 1990s that unless we reduced the emissions of CO2 by 2000, it would be too late to stop the world from being cooked. It is now nearly 2003 and their chicken little prophecies have proved false. In short, the evidence for man-caused global warming is waning, continuing to justify a wait and see policy.